MQTT is an easy way for Internet of Things (IoT) devices to communicate with each other. This light-weight protocol can be used with a simple 8-bit Arduino to a Raspberry Pi to a multi-core PC to Amazon Web Services. It is that versatile.
This MQTT Tutorial is broken into two parts. Part one is an MQTT Introduction. You’ll understand how publish/subscribe message brokering works. Next week, Part two will be a tutorial on using MQTT to communicate between a PC, Raspberry Pi, and ESP8266.
One of the common questions related to using the millis() function in Arduino, is around timed events. After an event occurs, you want the code to wait for some time before doing the next step. But you don’t want to stop the program with delay().
In this example, we will use millis() to wait a few seconds after a pushbutton press to turn on an LED. Then a few seconds later, we will turn it off. All without using delay().
When you hear the name “Arduino,” does a picture of the Uno come to mind? While the most popular, this 8-bit based board isn’t the only Arduino available today. There are some other boards available like the Due and recently introduced Zero, which are far more advanced than the humble Uno.
These are 32-bit microcontroller boards that have a very different architecture compared to the relatively straightforward Uno. In fact, one of the most striking differences is that the Due and Zero have two USB ports.
What is the difference between the Programming and Native ports on these more powerful Arduino boards?
Even though it is a popular project for the Arduino Uno, most Larson scanner tutorials, like my first one, have a few flaws. First, there is no persistence, or tail, to the LED as it moves back and forth. Persistence could be solved by using pulse-width-modulation. The Uno and other 328p-based micros only have 6 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pins. And let’s be honest, every project is made better by adding more LEDs. 🙂
If you look at this cover shot of KITT from Knight Rider you will see there isn’t just a single light source. It appears multiple lights are turned on, as well as fading effect. This fading effect creates a tail. Of course, the reason is probably that standard light bulbs were being used back in the 80s. Traditional light bulbs don’t turn on or off nearly as fast as LEDs.
Presenting the Proper Larson Scanner
Knowing that a popular Halloween hack is to add Cylon (or KITT) lights to your pumpkins, I thought it was time for a Proper Larson Scanner. This code example does a couple of important things.
It implements my “software pulse width modulation.”
Can be used on all 20 I/O pins of an Uno (or other 328p Arduino)
The Arduino Uno has six pins dedicated to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). PWM is great for analog-like control for the speed of motors or LED fading. But what if you want to control more than 6 devices? Or what if you’re using the PWM pins to control servo motors, but still want to fade an LED on a 7th pin?
One option is to change boards and processors. For example, you could move up to the Arduino Mega 2560. That means a bigger board and more cost.
Using millis() and micros(), it is possible to do PWM entirely in software. The best part is; if you can set the pin to OUTPUT, you can use this technique.
This tutorial will explain how you can use micros() and millis() to get more PWM pins on an Arduino Uno, Nano, or Pro Mini. It will probably work on other boards and processor types, but I haven’t tested them yet.
There’s a reason I needed this software PWM code. Subscribe to the mailing list, RSS feed, or follow me on social media to see why next week…
Apologies to the email subscribers if the code isn’t formatted correctly. Click here to read the full post.
The latest AddOhms looks at why you need a pull-up resistor when using push-buttons. This video goes into what happens when you leave a pin floating, what a floating pin means, and how the pull-up actually works. You can get more information about the video on the AddOhms Episode page.
This is the 2nd time I’ve made a video on pull-ups. Despite being a single resistor, it can be a difficult topic for new hardware designers to understand. The pull-up video was the first video tutorial I ever made. In fact, the YouTube version uses YouTube’s “stabilization” algorithm, which gives the video a very warped feel.
AddOhms #15 shows improvements in skill over the past couple of years!
Question: What’s another topic that I need to cover in an AddOhms Tutorial? You can leave a comment by clicking here.
Making the move to millis()-based code can be daunting. You have to rethink your logic, implement flags, program a state machine — and more importantly, start using millis(). Generally in forums and on IRC people will just point to the “blink without delay” example, hoping the commented code is enough for a new user. It’s not enough.
I have a growing list of millis()-based tasks posted in my millis() cookbook. But sometimes that those examples might be too simple or not close enough to your project’s end target. That got me thinking about different ways to help explain how millis() works. I thought “wow, you need to understand every line of an example” which leads me to: line-by-line.
Flag variables are great, and totally not evil, when you just have two states: ON or OFF. What about when you have multiple states? Is there an option better than creating multiple flag variables?
The C-language has a declaration type just for this purpose. It is called an enumeration, or enum.
Setting up a state machine with enum is a surprisingly simple. Arduino and embedded programmers should use them!
All you need to do is create descriptive tag names, and let the compiler assign them an integer value. Unlike a #define which is just a macro replacement, the compiler treats an enum as your personal variable type.
This behavior comes in handy when you’re creating states for a state machine. I show how to create a simple state machine with enum, to blink an LED with millis(), in this post.
Recently I picked up a device called Logic from Saleae. It’s a 4-channel USB-based logic analyzer. While learning how the simple, but effective, UI works I ran some timing benchmarks on my Arduino Uno. The subject? digitalWrite(). I wanted to know how fastdigitalWrite() could turn on two (or more) pins.
Almost all Arduino users start out with the simple “blink” sketch. Turn pin 13 ON, delay, turn it OFF, and delay again. The heart of this version of “Hello World!” is the digitalWrite() function. Many Arduino users never even think about all of the stuff this single function call hides.