Active components like transistors, BJTs, MOSFETs,  and integrated circuits (ICs) make it possible to control circuits. This video explains the must-have NPN and PNP BJTs. For MOSFETs there are a couple of N-Channels and P-Channels to consider. Basic ICs include some digital logic stuff from the 7400-family as well as the venerable 555-timer to have on-hand. We did not forget Op-Amps either. Spoiler: We do not recommend the ua741!

When it comes to transistors, there are only so many things a multimeter can measure. The DCA Pro from PEAK Electronics makes short work of testing parts like a transistor. This small device can determine pinout, component type, and essential parameters in a matter of seconds. Not only that but it can be connected to a (Windows) PC and draw parameter curves. Check out the video review to see how the device and software work.…

A common task for a transistor is switching a device on and off. There are two configurations for a transistor switch: low side and high side. The location of the transistor determines the type of circuit and its name. Either transistor configuration can use a BJT or MOSFET.

In this post, I draw the configuration for both transistor types, talk about which requires a driver, and explain why you would use either. If you are new to transistors, check out the resource links at the bottom. I have a couple of videos I made and some from element14’s The Learning Circuit which do a great job introducing transistors.

Over on element14, Karen hosts The Learning Circuit. It is a tutorial show geared towards learning STEM basics. So far she has covered subjects like soldering, diodes, and how to make a DIY electromagnet. She did a great job on introducing BJTs and how they work. While I thought she provided a clear explanation of the internal workings, some members of the element14 community still had questions. She invited me on to revisit BJTs and…

When your project needs a transistor, there are tons of choices.  Which makes answering the question “Which transistor should I use or buy?” a daunting task.  Fear not, before wading through spec sheet after spec sheet, consider one of these four general purpose transistors.  Every electronics enginerd’s toolbox should have a few of each.

Transistors are one of the most versatile discrete components in electronics.  In digital circuits, they switch on and off while in analog circuits they are used to amplify signals.  For most projects, they are used to turn on a load that would kill the I/O pin of a microcontroller or microprocessor.   For most circuits either a BJT or MOSFET can be used, depending on the load current you need to switch.

[Edit Note]  Jan (comment below) points out that there are European Equivalents that may be more available for those located in that part of the world. For NPN Check out the BC547, for PNP the BC557.

Here are some more details on each of these.