Python is everywhere. Its capabilities continue to grow. Not only can you create simple scripts, but you can create full-blown applications with it. The core has been scaled down to run on 32-bit microcontrollers like the ESP32 and Adafruit Feather M0. You can even use Python engineer modules to design stuff like circuits. There are electronics Python modules that create schematics, simulate circuits, and make solving math a cinch. Here are some of the modules I found that make Python usable for (electronics) engineering.
Up front, make sure you have a functioning Python environment. Update the package manager “pip” since all of these electronics python modules rely on it. Speaking of dependences, you may need to also install third-party libraries for some of them. From what I can tell, these all should be platform independent. However, I only tested these electronic modules with 64-bit Windows.
In the past, I’ve covered how to reset Arduino millis() and have provided a growing list of examples using millis(). While reviewing the code for the elegoo Penguin Bot, I was reminded of a millis() mistake I see often: addition. The only way to properly handle millis() rollover is with subtraction. Let’s look at why (and how.)
What is Arduino millis()
The Arduino library has a function called millis() which returns the number of milliseconds the processor has been running. On other platforms, you might see references to a “tick counter.” It is the same idea. A hardware timer keeps incrementing a counter at a known rate. In this case, that rate is milliseconds.
A mistake new programmers often make is trying to “reset millis().” A better method is to compare two time-stamps based on millis(). So this if-statement is comparing a previous timestamp to the current value of millis().
While the Arduino library does an excellent job of hiding some of C/C++’s warts, at the end of the day, it is still just C/C++. This fact causes a few non-intuitive issues for inexperienced programmers. When it looks like Arduino math is wrong, it is probably one of these reasons.
When people ask me for help with their programming, I check each of these Arduino math mistakes. If your code seems to be hitting a bug, check to make sure it is not how the compiler handles math.
Funny how a simple idea can spider out into multiple paths. Arduino EEPROM seemed like a straightforward concept. A few a years ago it was as easy as having either 512 or 1024 bytes of flash memory. The Arduino IDE offered an EEPROM library which let you read and write a single byte. Today, however, with many different processor architectures saving data to EEPROM varies. It is now possible to save any datatype to EEPROM but not on all boards and not all using the same method.
While programming an coin accepter sold by Adafruit on an AddOhms live stream, I discovered two “new” methods in the Arduino library. At least, these functions are new to me! A couple of years ago EEPROM.get() and EEPROM.put() appeared. Using these functions, you can store any datatype in EEPROM.
This post covers tidgets related to using Arduino EEPROM to store any value across multiple boards, or platforms. Specifically boards such as the Uno, Nano, Mega, and Zero are covered. Additionally Arduino-compatible boards from Espressif, PRJC, and Adafruit are covered as well.
Back in 2013, a Kickstarter ran for a project to put a python interpreter on a microcontroller. At the time I could not see the benefit. Cool project, but I asked myself: “why?” On my last Adafruit order, I received a free Circuit Playground Express. The board comes with CircuitPython pre-installed. After playing with Circuit Python, or CP, I finally “get it.”
For Valentine’s Day, I made an animated LED heart for a new love in my life, Circuit Python. Well, love is a bit of a strong word. The past couple of weeks I have been learning Circuit Python, and I am excited by what it offers.
What is Circuit Python?
It is a Python implementation that runs on microcontrollers. The code exists on the microcontroller as text. The interpreter runs the code from that text file. Circuit Python is built on, or based on, MicroPython. Adafruit is designing it to teach programming. It is easy to get started, just open up the code.py file from the auto-mounted drive and start typing. When you hit save, the code runs. That’s it.
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When it is time to move away from delay(), it’s time to learn how to properly use millis(). If you’ve had trouble following my millis() examples, maybe a live tutorial will help.
In this AddOhms Livestream, I go through 4 code examples:
1. Blink, the one with delay(), as a starting point.
2. Blink Without Delay, line by line, what is it doing
3. PWM Fading without delay() (and with buttons)
4. Binary counter that uses buttons to speed up and slow down.
When I started working on Open Vapors, I thought the stumbling point would be the PID algorithm or safe AC line control. However, it turned out; I spent a significant amount of time understanding how to print to the Arduino LCD display correctly.
As I dig into my latest project, the lessons I learned back then are coming back to me. Here are 7 tips for driving an Arduino LCD display, like one with 2×20 or 4×20 characters.
A question came up on IRC regarding how to PWM a 3-pin PC fan with an Arduino using analogWrite(). Controlling the fan was seemingly straightforward. The problem was that the hall effect sensor, or TACH signal, was incredibly noisy. The noise made it impossible to measure the fan’s rotation. Working through the question, I found three issues to tackle:
You need to use a PNP transistor
Filter capacitors help
Create a non-blocking RPM measurement (with millis())
This post addresses all three issues regarding how to PWM a 3-pin PC fan with an Arduino.
Previously I looked at the hardware needed to build a Raspberry Pi soft power supply. This week I’m looking the state machine for the microcontroller. Why is such a complicated circuit necessary? I am replacing a Super Famicom (SNES) motherboard with the Pi. The trick is, I want to use the original power switch to turn the Pi on and off.
This requirement presents a problem. When the switch goes into the “OFF” position, power needs to stay on long enough for the Pi to properly shutdown. So the switch itself can’t provide power to the Pi directly. With minor changes, the code in this state machine could be made to work with push buttons as well. If I add that feature in the future, I’ll update the code on the RPSPC GitHub project.
Before continuing with the state machine, first I need to thank all the mailing list members. You guys really rock. When I asked for state machine diagraming tool suggestions, you guys sent me enough options for an entire (future) post to compare them.
The Arduino serial monitor is usable when you want to watch data from an Arduino. However, it does not have a built-in method for saving the data. Here are some ideas if you want to build an Arduino data logger with or without a PC.
Important note on Arduino Data Logger examples
With all of these examples, please remember that whenever you open the Arduino’s serial port, the board will reset. So if your log file shows “Initializing SD card…” with a few data lines in between, it is because there is a reset happening.
In that code you can see data logging started and then restarted. What happened is that after programming, the board starts logging. Then when you open the Serial Monitor, the data logger restarts.
To solve this issue, either disable auto-reset, add a 3-4 second delay at the start of setup(), wait for a character to be received, or wait for a button press. That will give you time to open the Serial Monitor.