PWM a 3-pin PC fan with an Arduino

Note: 4-pin fans already have a PWM signal

Aeroscope Measuring a Fan

A question came up on IRC regarding how to PWM a 3-pin PC fan with an Arduino using analogWrite(). Controlling the fan was seemingly straightforward. The problem was that the hall effect sensor, or TACH signal, was incredibly noisy. The noise made it impossible to measure the fan’s rotation. Working through the question, I found three issues to tackle:

  1. You need to use a PNP transistor
  2. Filter capacitors help
  3. Create a non-blocking RPM measurement (with millis())

This post addresses all three issues regarding how to PWM a 3-pin PC fan with an Arduino.

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Soft Power Controller State Machine

Here's the logic behind the Pi Soft Power Controller

RPSPC State Machine

Previously I looked at the hardware needed to build a Raspberry Pi soft power supply. This week I’m looking the state machine for the microcontroller. Why is such a complicated circuit necessary? I am replacing a Super Famicom (SNES) motherboard with the Pi. The trick is, I want to use the original power switch to turn the Pi on and off.

This requirement presents a problem. When the switch goes into the “OFF” position, power needs to stay on long enough for the Pi to properly shutdown. So the switch itself can’t provide power to the Pi directly. With minor changes, the code in this state machine could be made to work with push buttons as well. If I add that feature in the future, I’ll update the code on the RPSPC GitHub project.

Before continuing with the state machine, first I need to thank all the mailing list members. You guys really rock. When I asked for state machine diagraming tool suggestions, you guys sent me enough options for an entire (future) post to compare them. 

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Arduino Data Logger: Serial Monitor Alternatives

Forget the serial monitor, here's 5 other ways to do Arduino data logging

arduino data logger options

The Arduino serial monitor is usable when you want to watch data from an Arduino. However, it does not have a built-in method for saving the data. Here are some ideas if you want to build an Arduino data logger with or without a PC.

Important note on Arduino Data Logger examples

With all of these examples, please remember that whenever you open the Arduino’s serial port, the board will reset. So if your log file shows “Initializing SD card…” with a few data lines in between, it is because there is a reset happening.

Initializing SD card…initialized.
Temp: 34, Time: 03:24:44
Temp: 33, Time: 03:24:45
Temp: 34, Time: 03:24:46
Tem

Initializing SD card…initialized.
Temp: 34, Time: 03:24:50
Temp: 34, Time: 03:24:51
Temp: 33, Time: 03:24:52
Temp: 34, Time: 03:24:53

In that code you can see data logging started and then restarted. What happened is that after programming, the board starts logging. Then when you open the Serial Monitor, the data logger restarts.

To solve this issue, either disable auto-reset, add a 3-4 second delay at the start of setup(), wait for a character to be received, or wait for a button press. That will give you time to open the Serial Monitor.

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Sending simple serial commands to an Arduino

Don't send words when characters will do

sending simple serial commands arduino

Sending simple serial commands to an Arduino is the easiest way to communicate between an Arduino and a computer. The computer could be a PC, a Raspberry Pi, or any device that communicates with serial.

By sending and “decoding” a single character it is easy to add a simple debug menu or even serial menu. Plus, it is easy to extend.

Single Character vs. Full Words

The mistake I see many people make is that they try to send full-text strings as serial commands. For example, to turn on a LED, I have seen (silly) commands like “RED LED ON” or “RED LED OFF.” While you could use something like strcmp(), as I showed on the Multiple MQTT Topics example, that tends to be overkill for most serial commands.

Humans like words, computers like binary. Just send one character over serial.

switch (variable) {
  case ‘a’:
	// A Stuff

  case ‘b’:
  case ‘c’:
	// B and C Stuff
  break;
}

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Multiple MQTT Topics with Arduino PubSubClient

Adding a few more subscriptions is pretty easy.

multiple mqtt topics

In my Arduino MQTT Examples, I kept things simple by only subscribing to a single topic. One of the strengths of MQTT is that a device can subscribe (or publish) to multiple topics. The broker will sort things out. Even though my first example only showed one, it is straight forward to get the Arduino PubSubClient library to subscribe to Multiple MQTT topics.

The quick answer is that you need to look at the MQTT response to find out which topic sent the payload.

tl;dr version

If you’re looking for a quick answer, here’s the magic code we’ll add to the callback() function.

void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) {
if (strcmp(topic,"pir1Status")==0)
  // whatever you want for this topic
}

Keep reading for a more detailed explanation of how to Subscribe to Multiple MQTT topics with Arduino’s PubSubClient. Obviously, this code will work on Arduino boards with a TCP/IP interface and, of course, the ESP8266 based boards.

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Fading LED: analogWrite millis() Example

Add a fading LED without delay()

Fading LED millis() Example

It’s a well-known fact of engineering: LEDs make everything look better. And that means a Fading LED is even better. Using Arduino’s analogWrite(), fading a LED is just a matter of a loop. If you use delay(), you can’t easily add other actions. What can you do? Well, Fading a LED with millis() is pretty simple. Here’s the code to do it and a quick explanation.

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Measure PWM Current with a Modified Moving Average

How do you measure a signal that keeps changing?

Measure PWM Current with MMA

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) makes it possible to dim lights, control the speed of motors, and (with the help of filters) generate analog reference voltages. When measuring the voltage or current of a PWM signal, there are unique challenges. You can use this tutorial to measure PWM current with a modified moving average (MMA).

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5 Common Arduino Programming Mistakes

Code compiles but doesn't work? Check these 5 mistakes.

5 common arduino programming mistakes

Whenever someone sends me some code that doesn’t work, there are a few common Arduino programming mistakes that I check. Some of these mistakes I make myself.  In most cases my code will compile just fine. Sometimes, these mistakes won’t generate any compiler error.

When my Arduino code is acting up, these are the first things I check. Here are my 5 common Arduino programming mistakes, I use to debug non-working code.

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Raspberry Pi GUI Tutorial

Use Qt and Python to make an easy to use Pi App

Raspberry Pi GUI Tutorial

My favorite Raspberry Pi add-on is the PiTFT from Adafruit. With it, you easily get a Raspberry Pi GUI interface and touch screen. The PiTFT software install is just a few things and it is good to go.

Adafruit PiTFT - Click for more info

Image from adafruit.com

This screen is what I needed in my IoT project. The Pi+Screen will act as the primary controller for all of my things. The problem is I didn’t know much about writing GUI applications in Linux. So what could I do to create a Raspberry Pi GUI?

Python is popular in Pi projects, so I decided to stick with it and find out what GUI toolkits are ready to go. “Ready to go” means they install easily on Raspian and work well on the Pi.

Here is how I got Qt5 for Python up and running to create a Raspberry Pi GUI.

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Use Arduino millis() with buttons to delay events

Create delayed actions without using delay()

One of the common questions related to using the millis() function in Arduino, is around timed events. After an event occurs, you want the code to wait for some time before doing the next step. But you don’t want to stop the program with delay().

Delayed Actions with Millis

In this example, we will use millis() to wait a few seconds after a pushbutton press to turn on an LED. Then a few seconds later, we will turn it off.  All without using delay().

Understanding millis()

The Arduino millis() function will let you accomplish this delayed action relatively easily. First, read through my multitasking with millis() tutorial and then look at some of my millis() cookbook examples I’ve already posted. Getting used to seeing this kind of code will make this line by line tutorial on timed events using millis() easier to follow.

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